عنوان مقاله [English]
This study aims at investigating the relationship between A and B personality types and attitude to change in Islamic Azad Universities, physical education administrators. The research methodology was descriptive-correlational. The population of the study consisted of all the physical education administrators of Islamic Azad Universities (N=210). The sample size was determined by using Morgan table. 136 posted questionnaires were completed and returned by the participants. To assess A and B personality types and attitude to change, Spencer Rathus questionnaire (1998) and Donham questionnaire (1996) were used, respectively. In order to confirm the validity of the questionnaires, the researchers submitted them to some professors in the department of physical education and management as well as some other experts. Subsequently, the experts' opinions regarding all the questionnaire items were applied in moderating the scales. The internal reliability of the scales in a sample group using Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated to be (0.76 for A and B personality types and 0.79 for attitude to change) and their temporal reliability method was (0.86 for A and B personality types and 0.81 for attitude to change) by test-retest method.The results showed that, out of the maximum mean score of 5 for attitude to change, the participants' mean score was 3.66 with the standard deviation of 0.59. The results of hypothesis tests revealed a meaningful relationship between A and B personality types and attitude to change in Islamic Azad Universities physical education administrators (P<0.001, t=5.08).
- Akbari, H. (2007), “Dance of Change”, Aryana Industrial Research Group Publishing Tehran, 12-13.
- Amirtash, A. (2004), “Fifth Sports Olympiad students the view of the judges, supervisors, instructors and students participating”, Harekat publication, N 19, 5-25.
- Khan Mokhtari, B. (2007), “Change Management: Thinking before doing”, Publishing Training and Industrial Research of Iran. 17-18.
- Rattus S. (1999), “General Psychology”, Translation: Hamza treasure, Tehran, Virayesh publication.
- Sajadi, N(2005), “Evaluation of the cost per student at the College of Physical Education and Sports Science and comparison with the cost per student”, Tehran, Harekat publication, N 23, 67-82.
- Sayarnejad, J. (2007), “ Education, human resources, facilities and funding for physical education courses in Azad Universities”, Harekat publication, N 31, 43-55.
- Safarbeghlo, A. (2005), “Management study in public secondary schools for girls in Tehran administrators and teachers and its comparison with indicators of change management” Master's thesis, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch of Tehran, 59-61.
- Alirezayi, N. (2006), “Attitude and behavior to their creativity Designer A, B Minecraft school students in the city of Karaj, Shahid Beheshti University, 13.
- Alizadeh, M. (2001), “University graduates employment problems of physical education throughout the country”, Translation: Hamza treasure, Tehran, N 13, 77-90.
- Falah, Z. (2009), “Compare the attitude of administrators, faculty and students to change management in physical education. PhD thesis in Physical Education, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch of Tehran”, 84-87.
- Kuzechiyan, H. (2000), “A Survey of Students of Physical Education Teaching”, Journal of harekat, N 4, 37-41.
- Ghodarzi, F. (2007), “Compare managers personality types A and B in order to change the orientation of the National Iranian Gas Company”, Master's thesis, University of Allameh Tabatabai, 89-92.
- Mirzayi, F. (2005), “Personality type A and B Managers have differences in their tendency to gradual change of direction or a change in Karaj city secondary schools”, Allameh Tabatabaei University, 57-62.
- Aramburu, N., Saenz, J.,& Rivera, O. (2006), Fostering innovation and knowledge creation: The role of management context, journal of knowledge management, Vol.10, No.3 , pp.157-168.
- Cinite, I. (2009), "Measurement of perceived organizational readiness for change in the public sector" British Journal of Management, Vol. 20, No. 2., pp. 265-277
- Dixon, V. D. (1991), Astudy of change: Principals as facilitators and teachers as implementors during year one of an innovation. Ed.D. Columbia University Teachers College, pp.48.
- Dunham, R.B., Grube, J.A., Gardner (1989). “the development of an attitude toward change instrument”. www.Emeraldinsight.com
- Fullan, M. (2007), The new meaning of educational change (4rd ed.). New York: Teachers College Press, pp.51-52.
- Hanna, D. E. (2003), Building a leadership vision: Eleven strategic challenges for higher education. Educause Review, 38(4), 25–34. Retrieved July 7, 2007 from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/ pdf/ERM0341.pdf.
- Hannan, M. T. and Freeman, J. (1977), "The population ecology of organizations", American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 83, No. 4, pp: 929- 964
- Havlik, K. M. (2007), Leadership, learning and school change: the elementary principal’s role in teacher professional development. Dissertation, the Graduate School of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, pp.67.
- Pervin, Lawrence & Oliver, John.(1999),Personality (Theory and Research),New York,John Weily & Sons,Seventh Edition, pp.532.
- Scott, G. (2003), Effective change management in higher education. Educause Review, 38, 64–80.
- Stadlaner, C.T. (2006), strategically balanced change: a key factor in modern management, electronic journal of business ethics and organization studies, Vol.11, No.1, pp.17-30.
- Taylor, A.(2006), Self-regulation, strategic leadership and organization change, Journal organization change management. Vol. 19, No.4, pp.457-470
- Vokola. M., Tsaousis, I., and Nikolaou, I. (2004),“The role of emotional intelligence and personality variables on attitudes toward organizational change” journal of managerial psychology. Vol.19, No.2, pp.88-110.
- Waterhouse, S. (2005), The power of e-learning: The essential guide for teaching in the digital age. Boston: Pearson Education, pp. 32-33.