بررسی اثر سرمایه انسانی و بهره‌وری نیروی کار بر مصرف انرژی در بخش های مختلف اقتصاد ایران

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیئت علمی، گروه اقتصاد، واحد تبریز،دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری گروه اقتصاد، واحد قزوین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قزوین، ایران

چکیده

بررسی رفتار مصرف انرژی در بخش­های مختلف اقتصاد، گامی اساسی و مهم برای برنامه­ریزی و مدیریت مصرف انرژی است. با توجه به این که ایران دارای منابع غنی و گستردۀ انرژی، مخازن بزرگ نفتی و گاز طبیعی، معادن عظیم زیرزمینی و پتانسیل بالقوۀ انرژی است، تعیین عوامل موثر بر مصرف انرژی می­تواند در تبیین سیاست­های بخش انرژی، کمک مؤثری کند. به همین منظور این مطالعه به بررسی آثار سرمایه انسانی و بهره­وری نیروی کار بر مصرف انرژی در بخش­های کشاورزی، صنعت و خدمات ایران با بهره­گیری از روش داده­های تابلویی در بازۀ زمانی 1375 تا 1395 پرداخته است. نتایج بررسی­ها نشان داد که سرمایه انسانی، بهره­وری نیروی کار، اثر تقاطعی سرمایه انسانی در بهره­وری نیروی کار و مجذور ارزش­افزوده بخش­های اقتصادی دارای تاثیر منفی و ارزش­افزوده تاثیر مثبت بر مصرف انرژی در بازۀ زمانی مورد بررسی داشته اند. به طوری که بر اساس نتایج تخمین مدل، آثار متقابل متغیرهای سرمایه انسانی و بهره­وری نیروی کار در بخش­های اقتصادی تأثیر منفی و معنی‌دار در سطح بحرانی یک درصد بر مصرف انرژی داشته است که این ضریب تلویحا‍ً این واقعیت را بیان می‌دارد که با افزایش سرمایه انسانی و لذا بهبود بهره­وری نیروی کار، مسیر صرفه­جویی در مصرف انرژی هموار     می­گردد. همچنین ضرایب برآورد شده برای متغیرهای ارزش­افزوده و مجذور ارزش افزوده فعالیت­های اقتصادی، بیان­کننده یک رابطه به شکل U معکوس ما­بین ارزش­افزوده بخش­های اقتصاد و مصرف انرژی می­باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Nonlinear Effects of Urbanization and Human Capital on Energy Consumption in Different Sectors of Economy in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Monere Dezaji 1
  • Arash Ketabforoush Badri 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
2 Ph.D. Student of Monetary Economics, Department of Economics, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran
چکیده [English]

Scrutiny of energy consumption behavioural patterns in various economic sectors represent an essential step in energy consumption planning and management. Delineation of determinants of energy demand is highly significant in Iran which is a country with rich energy resources, abundant oil and gas supplies, heavy minerals and potential resources. Therefore, using Panel Data Methods, this study explored the effects of urbanization and human capital on energy consumption in Iranian agriculture, industry and services sectors over a 17-year period between 1996 and 2016. The results showed that human capital, workforce productivity, interactive effect of human capital on workforce productivity and the squared value of economic sectors had negative effects while the added value had positive impacts on energy consumption during the specified period. The results of the analyses indicated that human capital and workforce productivity in economic sectors had negative significant interactive effects on energy consumption at the critical value of .01 implying that an increase in human capital and corresponding workforce enhancement will facilitate economizing on energy consumption. Moreover, the estimated coefficients of added value and squared added value of economic activities revealed an inverse U-shaped relationship between added values of economic sectors and energy consumption.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • energy consumption
  • Human Capital
  • Panel Data
  • urbanization

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