عنوان مقاله [English]
Organizations whose performance is being rapidly improved are considered one of the most prominent features of today's societies. The most important asset in any organization is attention to human resources which is considered to be a competitive advantage in successful organizations since it can impact the success of the organizational performance, promote psychic capital and reduce organization-family conflicts. This field study set out to investigate the impact of psychic capital on work-family conflict and organizational performance. The research data were collected by administering a standardized questionnaire to a stratified random sample of 138 managers and employees at Real Estate Registration Office in Mashhad. The sample size was determined based on Morgans’ Table. The collected data were analyzed via Structural Equation Modeling, Partial Least Squares techniques and Smart-PLS software. The findings indicated significant impacts from most of variables. Hypotheses 1, 2, 4, 6 & 8 verified negative impacts and hypotheses 5 & 7 verified positive impacts. That is to say, the employees’ psychic capital was found to improve organizational citizenship behavior. The same variable, however, negatively impacted work-family conflict; that is, employees’ rich psychic capital and the support they received from the organization could reduce work-family conflict. Moreover, the intention to quit one’s job was also found to have a negative impact on organizational performance. In other words, the higher the intention to quit, the lower the organizational performance which is directly influenced by the employees. The findings can assist managers to realign their planning towards improved and motivated human resource.
Abbas, M., Raja, U., Darr, W., & Bouckenooghe, D. (2012). Combined Effects of Perceived Politics and Psychological Capital on Job Satisfaction, Turnover Intentions, and Performance.
Allen, T. D., Johnson, R. C., Saboe, K. N., Cho, E., Dumani, S., & Evans, S. (2012). Dispositional Variables and Work–Family Conflict: A Meta-Analysis. Vocat Behav, 80(1), 17-26.
Amin Afshar, Z., & Fazli, S. (2018). Investigating the Effect of Relational Capital on Supply Chain Risk and Performance. Manufacturing Technology and Management, 32(6), 517-532, (In Persian).
Avey, J. B., Patera, J. L., & West, B. J. (2006). The Implications of Positive Psychological Capital on Employes Absenteeism. Leadersh, 13(2), 42-60.
Azar, A., Qolamzadeh, R., & Qanavati, M. (2012). Route-Structural Modeling in Management: Application of smart-PLS Software. Tehran: Neghahe Danesh Publication, (In Persian).
Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2008). Towards a Model of Work Engagement. Career Development International, 13(3), 209-223.
Bande, B., Jaramillo, F., Fernández-Ferrín, P., & Varela, J. (2019). Salesperson Coping with Work-Family Conflict: The Joint Effects of Ingratiation and Self-Promotion. Journal of Business Research, 95, 143-155.
Boyar, S. L., Maertz Jr., J. P., & Pearson, A. W. (2005). The Effects of Work-Family Conflict and Family-Work Conflict on Nonattendance Behaviors. J. Bus. Res, 58(7), 919-925.
Chin, W. (1998). The Partial Least Squares Approach to Structural Equation Modeling. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Choi, H. J., & Kim, Y. T. (2012). Work-Family Conflict, Work–Family Facilitation, and Job Outcomes in the Korean Hotel Industry. Int. J. Contemp. Hosp. Manag, 24(7), 1011-1028.
Chung, E., Jung, Y., & Sohn, Y. (2017). A Moderated Mediation Model of Job Stress, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Intention for Airport Security Screeners. Safety Science, 98, 89-97.
Cohen, S., Gottlieb, B. H., & Underwood, L. G. (2000). Social Relationships and Health. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Dai, Y., Chen, K., & Zhuang, W. (2016). Moderating Effect of Work-Family Conflict on the Relationship between Leader-Member Exchange and Relative Deprivation: Links to Behavioral Outcomes. Tourism Management, 54, 369-382.
Dollery, B. E., & Worthington, A. C. (1996). The Evaluation of Public Policy: Normative Economic Theories of Government Failure. Journal of Interdisciplinary Economics, 7, 27-39.
Edwards, J. R., & Rothbard, N. P. (2000). Mechanisms Linking Work and Family: Clarifying the Relationship between Work and Family Constructs. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 178-199.
Elahi, M., Amin Afshar, Z., & Hooshangi, M. (2014). Classification of Iran Automotive and Parts Manufacturing stocks by DEA. Journal of Data Envelopment Analysis and Decision Science, 1-11.
Fazli, S., & Amin Afshar, Z. (2014). The Role of Drivers on Supply Chain Integration. Asian Journal of Research in Business Economics and Management. 4(12), 347-359, (In Persian).
Fazli, S., Hooshangi, M., & Hosseini, A. (2013). The relationship between Relational Capital and Buyer Performance. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 5(4), 436-440, (In Persian).
Fazli, S., & Hooshangi, M. (2014). The Impact of Social Capital on Buyer-Supplier Relationships in Qazvin Province Manufacturing Companies. Journal of Industrial Management, Tehran University, 6(1), 75-96, (In Persian).
Fazli, S., & Amin Afshar, Z. (2016). Investigating the Direct Role of Supply Chain Drivers and the Modal Role of Organizational Culture in Improving Supply Chain Performance Case Study: Qazvin Province Manufacturing Companies. Journal of Industrial Management Research, 14(41), 109-136, (In Persian).
Flynn, B. B., Huo, B., & Hao, X. (2010). The Impact of Supply Chain Integration on Performance: A Contingency and Configuration Approach. Journal of Operations Management, 28(1), 58-71.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equations Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.
García-Madariaga, J., & Rodríguez-Rivera, F. (2017). Corporate Social Responsibility, Customer Satisfaction, Corporate Reputation, and Firms’ Market value: Evidence from the Automobile Industry. Spanish Journal of Marketing, 21, 39-53.
Godarzi, H. (2017). Investigating the Effect of Work-Family Conflict and Family-Work-Family Protection on Job Satisfaction and Job Performance among Employees of the National Drilling Company of Yaran. Journal of Human Resource Management in Oil Industry, 9(33), (In Persian).
Goff, S.J., Mount, M.K., & Jamison, R. L. (1990). Employer Supported Child Care, Work/Family Conflict, and Absenteeism: A Field Study. Pers. Psychol. 43(4), 793-809.
Gözükara, I., & Çolakoğlu, N. (2016). The Mediating Effect of Work Family Conflict on the Relationship between Job Autonomy and Job Satisfaction. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 229, 253-266.
Grandey, A. A., & Cropanzano, R. (1999). The Conservation of Resources Model Applied to Work-Family Conflict and Strain. J. Vocat. Behav, 54(2), 350-370.
Haines, V. Y., Harvey, S., Durand, P., & Marchand, A. (2013). Core Self-Evaluations, Work–Family Conflict, and Burnout. J. Marriage Family, 75, 778-793.
Hart, T., Gilstrap, J., & Bolino, M. (2016). Organizational Citizenship Behavior and the Enhancement of Absorptive Capacity. Journal of Business Research, 69, 3981-3988.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. (2009). The Use of Partial Least Squares Path Modeling in International Marketing. Advances in international Marketing, 20, 277-320.
Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of Resources: A New Attempt at Conceptualizing Stress. American Psychologist, 44, 513-524.
Hobfoll, S. E. (2002). Social and Psychological Resources and Adaptation. Rev. Gen. Psychol, 6(4), 307-324.
Hoffman, B. J., Blair, C. A., Meriac, J. P., & Woehr, D. J. (2007). Expanding the Criterion Domain? A Quantitative Review of the OCB Literature. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 555-566.
Hooshangi, M., Elahi, S. M., Amin Afshar, Z., & Sadoq, M. (2014). Investigating the Effect of Organizational Culture and Leadership Style on Technology Acceptance and Knowledge Management (Case Study: Manufacturing Companies of Qazvin Province). Management of Organizational Culture, 31(1), 762-739, (In Persian).
Hooshangi, M., Fazli, S., & Mirhosseini, S. S. (2016). The Mediation Role of Buyer’s Satisfaction in Relationship between Structural Capital with Performance. International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, 23(3), 329-342.
Hooshangi, M., Sadaghiani J. S., Rashidi Astaneh, M., & Amin Afshar, Z. )2017). The Mediation Role of Supply Chain Integration in Relationship between Employee Commitment with Organizational performance. International Journal of Business Information Systems, (In Persian).
Jafari Karfestani, Z., Azizi Shomami, M., & Maleki, H. (2013). Organizational Citizenship Behavior as an Unavoidable Necessity for Increasing the Effectiveness of Organizations. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research In Business, 4(9), 827-850, (In Persian).
Jang, J., & George, R. T. (2012). Understanding the Influence of Polychronicity on Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention: A Study of Non-Supervisory Hotel Employees. IJHM, 31(2), 588-595.
Karatepe, O., & Karadas, G. (2014). The Effect of Psychological Capital on Conflicts in the Work–Family Interface, Turnover and Absence Intentions. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 43, 132-143.
Karatepe, O. M., & Demir, E. (2014). Linking Core Self-Evaluations and Work Engagement to Work-Family Facilitation: A Study in the Hotel Industry. Int. J. Contemp. Hosp. Manag, 26(2), 307-323.
Karatep, M. O., & Yavas, U. B. (2008). Attitudinal and Behavioral Consequences of Work-Family Conflict and Family-Work Conflict: Does Gender Matter?. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 1, 7-13.
Katz, D. (1964). The Motivational Basis of Organizational Behavior. Behavioral Science, 9(2), 131-146.
Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1966). The Social Psychology of Organizations. New York: Wiley.
Kwantes C. T. (2003). Organization Citizenship and Withdrawal Behaviors in USA and India. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 3(1), 5-26.
Kiani Mavi, R., & Amin Afshar, Z. (2017). The Relationships between Social Capital and Organizational Entrepreneurship at Small and Medium Enterprises of Zanjan Province. Business Innovation and Research, 12(4), 449-464, (In Persian).
Kirchmeyer, C., & Cohen, A. (1999). Different Strategies for Managing the Work/Nonwork Interface: A Test for Unique Pathways to Work Outcomes. Work Stress, 13(1), 59-73.
Kossek, E. E., Pichler, S., Bodner, T., & Hammer, L. B. (2011). Workplace Social Support and Work Family Conflict: A Meta-Analysis Clarifying the Influence of General and Work–Family-Specific Supervisor and Organization Support. Personnel Psychology, 64(2), 289-313.
Lambert, E. (2010). The Relationship of Organizational Citizenship Behavior with job Satisfaction, Turnover Intent, Life Satisfaction, and Burnout among Correctional Staff.Taylor & Francis,23(4),361-38.
Lim, B., & Loosemore, M. (2017). The Effect of Inter-Organizational Justice Perceptions on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Construction Projects. International Journal of Project Management, 35, 95-106.
Melanie Ramos, H., Wing Yan Man, T., Mustafa, M., & Zuie Ng, Z. (2014). Psychological Ownership in Small Family Firms: Family and Non-Family Employees’ Work Attitudes and Behaviors. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 5, 300-311.
Michel, J. S., & Clark, M. A. (2013). Investigating the Relative Importance of Individual Differences on the Work-Family Interface and the Moderating Role of Boundary Preference for Segmentation. Stress and Health, 29(4), 324-336.
Michel, J. W., Kavanagh, M. J., &Tracey, J. B. (2013). Got Support? The Impact of Supportive Work Practices on the Perceptions, Motivation, and Behavior of Customer Contact Employees. Cornell Hosp, 54(2), 161-173.
Moullin, M. (2002). Delivering Excellence in Health and Social Care. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Nabavi, A., Bagheri, M., & Shahriary, M. (2013). Investigating the Impact of Work-Family Conflict and Family-User Alienation of Work. Women's Magazine in Culture and Art, 5(3). 397-414, (In Persian).
Neely, A.D., Adams, C., & Kennerley, M. (2002). The Performance Prism: The Scorecard for Measuring and Managing Stakeholder Relationships. London: Financial Times/Prentice Hall.
Ng, T., Lam, S., & Feldman, D. (2016). Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Counterproductive Work Behavior: Do Males and Females Differ?. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 93, 11-32.
Nohe, C., & Sonntag, K. (2014). Work-Family Conflict, Social Support, and Turnover Intentions: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 85, 1-12.
Organ Dennis, W. (1997). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: It’s Construct Clean-up Time. Human Performance, 10(2), 85-97.
Otto, K., & Mamatoglu, N. (2015). why Does Interactional Justice Promote Organizational Loyalty, Job Performance, and Prevent Mental Impairment? The Role of Social Support and Social Stress. The Journal of Psychology, 2, 193-218.
Pratt, D. (2005). A Comment on the Debate between Max Moullin and Fabrizio Bocci. Perspectives on Performance, 4(2), 12-13.
Ramos, H., Wing Yan Man, T., Mustafa, M., & Zuie Ng, Z. (2014). Psychological Ownership in Small Family Firms: Family and Non-Family Employees’ Work Attitudes and Behaviors. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 5, 300-311.
Reynolds, C., Shoss, M., & Jundt, D. (2015). In the Eye of the Beholder: A Multi-Stakeholder Perspective of Organizational Citizenship and Counterproductive Work Behaviors. Human Resource Management Review, 25, 80-93.
Roth, P. L., Purvis, K. L., & Bobko, P. (2012). A Meta-Analysis of Gender Group Difference for Measures of Job Performance in Field Studies. Journal of Management, 38, 719-739.
Safavi, H. P., & Bouzari, M. (2019). The Association of Psychological Capital, Career Adaptability and Career Competency among Hotel Frontline Employees. Tourism Management Perspectives, 30, 65-74, (In Persian).
Selvarajan, T., Singh, B., & Cloninger, P. (2016). Role of Personality and Effect on the Social Support and Work Family Conflict Relationship. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 94, 39-56.
Shaffer, M. A., Harrison, D. A., Gilley, K. M., & Luk, D. M. (2001). Struggling for Balance Amid Turbulence on International Assignments: Work–Family Conflict, Support and Commitment. J. Manag, 27(1), 99-121.
Shahbazi, M., Aliakbari, A., Asaa’di, A., & Javaheri, K. (2008). The Effect of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment on Staff Quit. Journal of Human Development Policeman, 5(19), (In Persian).
Trachtenberg, J. V., Anderson, S. A., & Sabatelli, R. M. (2009). Work-Home Conflict and Domestic Violence: A Test of a Conceptual Model. Journal of Family Violence, 7, 471-483.
Vadadi, A., Rezaeezade, M., Mirhashemi, A., & Najafi, H., A. (2013). Investigating the Impact of Organizational Commitment on the Staff turnover. Quarterly Journal of Management Studies, 2(2), (In Persian).
Vahedi, A., Krug, I., & Westrupp, E. (2019). Crossover of Parents' Work-Family Conflict to Family Functioning and Child Mental Health. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 62, 38-49.
Yavas, U., Karatepe, O.M., & Babakus, E. (2013). Does Hope Buffer the Impacts of Stress and Exhaustion on Frontline Hotel Employees’ Turnover Intentions? Tour. Interdiscip, 61(1), 29-39.
Zare, H. (2004). The Role of Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Organizational Performance. Management Culture’s, 2(6), 151-169, (In Persian).
Zhao, X., & Mattila, A. (2013). Examining the Spillover Effect of Frontline Employees’ Work–Family Conflict on Their Affective Work Attitudes and Customer Satisfaction. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 33, 310-315.