عنوان مقاله [English]
Some of the well-known or developing countries have distinguished status in the field of higher education in international competition. Most of the service-education institutes were pioneers in the past, but they are no longer very famous. Many of the experts in the science of management and planning, such as Fred R. David and Hangar believe that the solution to organizational challenges should be found in concepts such as goals, policy, mission and strategic policies of an institute. Planning is a process that has specified inter-connected stages for producing a coherent output in the format of a system of decisions. According to this definition, temporary and non-continuous decisions and policy-makings to lead the organization through the present and future time are not considered planning. Most plannings, based on the rational approach, have the following format: ideals and goals-projects and procedures-required resources. In models such as Brisson's Model, Hill's, BCG Model, and GE Model…, first of all, the ideals and goals of the organization are explained; then, the necessary projects and procedures are specified; and finally, the required resources are provided. Changes in the environmental conditions, policies, approaches, perspectives, structures, systems, etc. are the factors that can affect the ideals and goals of planning and ultimately changes the program. These conditions led to the thought that in planning, it should be possible to change the course of movement according to the changes, and to adopt a new route of action. With regard to the this approach, it will be possible to make organized decisions in order to attain strategic goals and to perform actions that will shape the nature of the organization, the type of the activities, and the reason for performing those activities by the organization.